Activities of River Management Wing

Systematic Collection and Storage of Hydrological Data

Central Water Commission at present operates Nation wide Network of 945 Hydrological Observation Stations. Out of these 945 stations, 246 are Gauge Sites, 282 are Gauge and Discharge Sites, 115 are Gauge Discharge and Water Quality Sites, 41 are Gauge, Discharge and Silt Sites, while the remaining 261 are Gauge, Discharge, Silt and Water Quality Sites. The basin-wise distribution of these sites is detailed below.

Basin-wise Details of Hydrological Observation Sites

Sl No Name of Basin
No of sites
1 Indus
2 Ganga, Brahmaputra, Meghna/Barak
3 Godavari
4 Krishna
5 Cauvery
6 Subarnrekha
7 Brahmani – Baitarni
8 Mahanadi
9 Pennar
10 Mahi
11 Sabarmati
12 Narmada
13 Tapi
14 West Flowing rivers from Tapi to Tadri
15 West Flowing rivers from Tadri to Kanyakumari
16 East Flowing rivers between Mahanadi and Pennar
17 East Flowing rivers between Pennar and Kanyakumari
18 West Flowing rivers of Kuchh and Saurashtra including Luni

The dissemination of data to bonafide users is processed as per the data request received in regional offices of CWC as well as at the Headquarter by the Planning & Development (P&D) Unit and Information System Organisation (ISO) of CWC.

The users of the data have been categorized as below

  • (i) Central/State Government offices
  • (ii) Public Sector Undertaking and Institutions/Societies working under the direct control of Central/State Governments and IITs,
  • (iii) Research Institutions/Scholars.

Hydrology Project

During 1995-96, the Government of India and nine States entered into a development credit agreement with the World Bank to implement “Hydrology Project” under a joint financing arrangement, whereby the Government of Netherlands provided related technical assistance in the form of a grant. Under the Hydrology Project-I, a comprehensive hydrological information system comprising the physical infrastructure and human resource to collect, process, store and disseminate data on hydrological, geo-hydrological and hydro-meteorological quantity and quality variables have been established in the Central Water Commission covering the entire peninsular region of India.

Data storage centres for surface and ground water agencies have been created at Regional as well as National level for storage and dissemination of data. A software for data storage and dissemination for all the ground water and surface water agencies has been developed under Hydrology Project and a combined catalogue containing Meta Data (information about availability of data) of various data storage centres has been hosted on the web. The catalogue provides on-line information to the data user about the kind of data, period of its availability and owner agency through which data user can make a map/list based selection of the data required by him and can generate Data Request File (DRF) for the same. DRF is automatically e-mailed to all the concerned data storage centres for supplying the data.

A proposal for taking up Hydrology Project Phase-II consisting of two major components-Institutional Strengthening and Vertical Extension is under finalisation. The project envisages the consolidation of HP-I, increasing awareness for data dissemination and knowledge sharing, logistics support etc., under the Institutional Strengthening. Under the vertical extension component “Development of Hydrological Design Aids including standardization of methodology/ protocols” is a major activity.

Flood Forecasting & Warning Services

Advance knowledge of incoming floods play an important role in reducing flood damage as also better planning of rescue/relief operations. Flood forecasts help in optimum regulations of (multipurpose) reservoirs with or without flood cushions in them. This service has since been expanded by CWC to cover almost all major flood prone inter-State river basins of India. At present there are 145 level forecasting stations on major rivers and 27 inflow forecasting stations on major dams/barrages. It covers 9 major river systems in the country, including 65 river sub-basins pertaining to 15 states viz. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh & West Bengal and one union territory Dadra & Nagar Haveli and the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Normally forecasts are issued 12 to 48 hours in advance, depending upon the river terrain, the location of the flood forecasting sites and base stations.

Central Water Commission has been issuing Daily Flood Bulletins and Special Flood Bulletins during the flood season every year based on the information collected from affected State Governments and its own field formations. Water Quality Monitoring Central Water Commission is monitoring water quality of surface water at 371 key locations covering all the major river basins of India. CWC is maintaining a three-tier laboratory system for the analysis of the parameters. The Level-I Laboratories are located at 258 field water quality monitoring stations on major rivers of India where physical parameters such as Temperature, Colour, Odour, Sp. Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, pH and Dissolved Oxygen of river water are observed.

There are 24 Level-II Laboratories located at selected Divisional Headquarters to analyse 25 physio-chemical characteristics and bacteriological parameters of river water. Four Level-III/II+ Laboratories are functioning at Varanasi, Delhi, Hyderabad and Coimbatore where 41 parameters including Heavy Elements/Toxic parameters and Pesticides are analysed. The data generated is computerised in Data Base System and disseminated in the form of Water Quality Year Book and Water Quality Bulletins. Level II+ Laboratory at Hyderabad has conducted 5th round of Analytical Quality Control Programme (AQC) for 25 CWC Water Quality Laboratories and 11 State Surface Water Quality Laboratories.